Periodontology is a division of stomatology studying a norm and pathology of periodental telas.
A paradontium is a complex of periodental tissues and tooth, that are closely connected functionally and morphologically. Paradontium consists of a gum, part of a bone and periosteal coverage, periodont and tooth cementum.
Periodontal disease is an inflammation of periodental tissues with involving of a bone and appearing of pockets around teeth.
Parodontosis is a dystrophic process of tooth tissues decrease.
Gingivitis is a gum inflammation without involving a bone .
According to the World Health Organization data, 80-90 % of population in the world have paradontium inflammatory diseases of of different severity level. The most widespread diseases are periodontitis and gingivitis. All these diseases can result in the loss of teeth at wrong treatment or at its absence.
Main reason of gums deseases is a dental calculus that can transform into a calcified debris if the cavity mouth hygiene is not proper. Also the reasons of these deseases can be malocclusion or abutment teeth overload at the wrong choice of orthopaedic constructions, overhanging edges of fillings and an edge of artificial crownwork.
In the development of paradontium diseases a large role is played by the general state of nervous and endocrine systems, violation of vitamin balance, decline of natural immunity of an organism.
Characteristic signs of paradontium diseases:
- gingival bleeding at cleaning of teeth;
- to appearance of teeth displaceability;
- bad breath;
- tooth neck baring.
Treatment of paradontium diseases must be complex, take to account individual features and remove general and local factors, causing a problem. Great attention is payed to the professional oral hygiene of a patient and also to the proper hygienical oral care educating. Depending on the severity level sometimes there is a necessity to apply the surgical methods of treatment: curettage of parodontium pockets, flap surgery with the use of osteoplastic materials.
Adequate rehabilitation therapy guarantees the remission of a process for a long time.